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Full text of "Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin. Number 44, October 1913"

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BULLETIN 

OF THE 

PENN8YI.VANIA 
MUSBUM 

PUBLISHED QJJAK- 
TERLY BY THE 
PENlSrSYEVANI^ 
MUSEUM AND 

SCHOOL or 

INDUSTRIAL ART 

MEMORIAL 
HALL <$> <8> 

FAIRMOUNT PARK 

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE |l.00 
OCTOBER. 1913 



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liilBilolpliia. I'a.. as Swntid-Class Matter, under Act of Conin-ess nf, Jnly 16. 1S94 



PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 

ffioavD of ^Trustees 



The Goveskor of the StatEj Ex-Of. 

Chasles Bond 
James Butter worth 
John G. Carruih 
Charles E. Dak a 
Thouas Dolan 
Harrington Fitzgerald 
Charles H. Harding 



The Mayor of the City, Ex-Of. 



Mrs. John Harrison 
Thomas Skelton Harrison 
John Story Jexks 
John H. McFadden 
John D. McIlhenny 
John T. Morris 
John W. Pepper 



Theodore C. Search 
Edgar V. Seeler 
G. Henry Stetson 
Edward T. Stotesbuky 
Jones Wister 
WiLUAM Wood 



©tticcrs 

THEODORE C SEARCH, President 

JOHN STORY JENKS, 

JOHN G. CARRUTH, 

JAMES BUTTERVVORTH, Treasurer 

EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Secretary 

LESLIE W. MILLER,. Princifal of the School 



\ Vice-. 



■Presidents 



t 



EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, EdiUir 



Bulletin 

yor ©ctober IRinetcen Wunbrcb an& (Cbirteen 
CONTENTS 



Peasants' Forks, Spoons and Knives from the Tyrol 

by Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson . . . 

A Meissen Porcelain Group .... 

The Special Museum Fund .... 

Italian Porcelain and Pottery, by Edwin A. Barber 
Notes ......... 

Accessions ........ 

Member.ship, etc. ....... 



57 

661 

671 
701 



BULLETIN 



OF 



THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



» 



I 



OCTOBER, 1913 ELEVENTH YEAR Number 44 

COLLECTION OF PEASANTS' FORKS, SPOONS AND KNIVES 

FROM THE TYROL 

A collection of peasants' spoons, forks and knives was recently purchased 
by the Museum. While they are all from the Tyrol, they represent some two 
or more centuries and as such they possess considerable interest. As is well 
known, spoons go back to extreme antiquity and early knives trace their 
pedigree to the flint flakes of the stone age. Forks, however, belong to Euro- 
pean civilization. 

Some of the forks have wooden handles, brass-mounted and adorned with 
ornamental brass knobs of various patterns. Others are inlaid and mounted in 
silver. There are sets of three pieces in sheaths, or "bestecks" — fork, knife 
and a rou'^d and pointed implement, flattened and perforated at about an inch 
and a half from the end. 

The third piece in the "besteck," which describes a collection of implements 
for sticking in the pocket, was used primarily as a steel and possibly as a spit 
on which to hold a piece of venison to the fire while broiling. In this case, a 
peg stuck in the hole would prevent its falling off. According to Viollet-le- 
Duc, those that are perforated were also used for trussing fowls or meat before 
roasting. In the National Bavarian Museum collection in Munich some 
"bestecks" include a two-pronged instrument similar to the fork, but flexible. 
It is screwed inside the steel and was used for cleaning the forks. Another 
specimen includes a corkscrew. 

It has been stated that the steel was also used as a netting needle for 
making string net bags similar to a fish net, used for market instead of a basket. 
This is less likely, as the handle must interfere. However that may be, attached 
to the women's laelts of that period is always one of those steels or needles, the 
house key and a pocket knife buckled on, which shows that it was used as an 
implement of general utility. In some sets, however, the third tool is purely 
an ordinary round though pointed sharpener. The men carried these sets in 
a hip pocket or sheath. 

The very small forks are possibly the oldest and may date from the i6th 
century, although that seems unlikely for reasons stated below. Such origi- 
nally were used for fruit. The long serving forks also may be older than the 
rest. In some of the examples in the collection the handle is of natural stag- 



5S 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEU^I 



horn ; others are of bone more or less finely engraved with designs adorning 
the plaque of bone set in on the wooden handle. These come chiefly from 
Sterzing, Tyrol, and the surrounding villages. They possibly date from the 
middle of the 17th century. In Austria and German^• this work is known as 




TABLE IMPLEMENTS 

Sterzinger-bein-Arbeit, or Engraved Bone Art of Sterzing, Tyrol 

Ejghleenth Century 



■'Sterzinger-bein-Arbeit.'" It is still an industry but has much deteriorated. 
One of these forks (see second group) has a turned handle and is obviously 
of more recent date than the rest, as is the three-pronged specimen. 

Quite a long series of bone forks and spoons are finely engraved with 
religious subjects. These were probably especially used for the Paschal Feast 
(Easter). In the illustration may be noted one representing St. Francis kneel- 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 59 

ing before a crucifix ( first group ) , while another represents a scene of rural 
transportation. The inscriptions are probably descriptive of the scenes repre- 
sented. 

Most of these implements are well made and form a fine exhibit of peas- 
ants' industrial art. It is noticeable that in the broken sets the knife is missing, 
which is due to the knife being so much more used by the hunter, and therefore 
being more liable to untoward accidents, loss or breakage. 

Next to the three small and two long plain forks, the oldest are those with 
wooden handles inlaid with brass, silver or iron. These date from 1650 to 
1750. The triangular handles seem to antedate the oval ones. 

In the East, as indeed with the Greeks and Romans of antiquity, men ate 
with their fingers. Alone the spoon was used for liquids, and with the knife 
the food was separated, but it was carried to the mouth with the fingers. At 
all times, however, the manner in which this was done was a test of breeding. 
From the days of Pericles to those of St. Louis a well-bred person was recog- 
nized by the daintiness of this use of the fingers. 

In the "Roman de la Rose,"''' Jehan de Meung gives an interesting account 
of the table manners of the hostess of his day. It was regarded as correct for 
her to appear a little late. 

"Ft ce face ung petit atendre," he says. She saw to it that her guests were 
seated and served, carving viands and distributing bread. Then she must grace- 
fully serve him who ate ofif her dish, for then one plate did for two persons. 
In eating she must take care that her fingers did not get soiled above the joints 
and that no soup, garlic or fat cling to her lips. Nor must she put big or many 
pieces in her mouth. With the finger tips alone must she touch the piece that 
she would dip in the gravy, and then wisely lift the thing to her mouth so that 
not a drop fall on her breast of either soup, gravy or pepper. 

There is a mention of forks in the inventor}- of Edward I. of England in 
1297. and after this date other mentions of them appear but rarely. In the 14th 
century forks "for pears" occur in the inventory of Pier Gaveston (1313) ; and 
in an inventory of the "dues de Bourgogne," 1420, is entered "une bien petite 
fourchette d'or a manche tortille pour manger meurs." It would seem that such 
forks were intended especially to protect the fingers from fruits that leave 
stains. Nevertheless, a writer, Barthelemy I'Anglais, who lived at the end of 
the 13th century and gives a spirited account of the table manners of the day, 
distinctly mentions that in setting the table "on met les salieres, les couteaux 
et les cuillers premierement a table, et puis le pain," and makes no mention of 
forks. 

A "Civilite" composed in Latin by a Sieur Sulpice, 1480, and translated in 
prose by Guillaume Durand, was later transposed in most original verse by a 
certain Pierre Broe, of Lyons. It recommends some curious manners that 
entirely preclude the use of forks. It says : 

"Don't gnaw bones with your teeth as do dogs ; nor yet tear them with 
nails as do birds of prey ; but scrape them honestly with your knife so that the 
flesh is all together." It advises to throw bones and parings under the table, 

d' Edition Elzevirienne, vers. 13, 983, etc. 



I 



6o BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




FORKS, KNIVES AND STbELS 

Brass and Silver Mounted 

Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 




TABLE UTENSILS OF WOOD, BONE, STAGHORN 

Variously Decorated with Silver, Brass, etc , Peasant Art of the Austrian Tyrol 

Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 6i 

unless a basket is provided for the purpose ; also urging not to use more than 
three fingers in taking your meat out of the dish, and advises not keeping your 
hand in the dish too long, nor yet to eat your meat with both hands. 

However this may be, the early forks, from the Latin "furca," had but 
two prongs or "tines." The handles were of hard stone, crystal or ivory. Very 
few and rare are mediseval forks in collections, although spoons are plenty. 

Henry Havard*"', while he cites the use of the fork among the Homeric 
Greeks and the Romans to hold before the fire meats to be broiled or roasted — 
as shown by the recovery of such implements at Psestum, along the Appian 
Way and among the ruins of the fort of Longchamps ( Eure ) , now at the Gisors 
Museum — and adds that from the 14th century exceptionallv the fork appears 
to have been in use, questions the fact of its having been employed as now to 
carry viands to the mouth. This has given rise to controversies ; but this 
careful investigator, after a meticulous examination of the evidence, concludes 
that until the end of the i6th century fingers were exclusively used and that 
the forks preserved prior to this epoch were destined for other usages. 

In the first place, in mediaeval inventories the number of forks is very 
small as compared to that of spoons. Moreover, the great richness of these 
small implements precluded the idea of common usage. In the inventory of 
Clemence de Hongrie (1328), for instance, thirty spoons are mentioned and 
one fork of gold. That of Jeanne d'Evreux ( 1372) mentions one golden fork. 
That of the Duke d'Anjou (1360) enumerates many spoons, of which nine 
were of gold, but not one fork. That of Charles V. (1380), besides a "small 
fork with twisted handle which belonged to the Queen Jeanne de Bourbon," 
one more is mentioned as being in the nef of the King. "La navecte d'or 
goderonnee, et meet-on dedens, quand le Roy est a table, son essay, sa cuillier, 
son coutelet et sa fourcette, et poise a tout le couvescle, trois marcs cinq onces 
et demie. — Item, Tessa)', la fourcette, la cuiller, et le petit coustel, ou il a une 
perle d'orient au bout, et poise, tout ensemble, trois onces." In addition Charles 
V. possessed one of gold with a sapphire at the end, one with crystal handle set 
in gold, etc., and two of silver with crystal handle, plus three knights and three 
squires of Brie, made into forks, /. e., three white and three gilt to make the 
King's cheeze toast, weighing one marc three ounces : altogether twelve forks. 
For a prince whose silver plate is valued at one and a half millions, that seems 
a scanty supply. 

The inventory of the Duchess of Touraine (1389) has the entry of two 
spoons and forks of gilded silver and nine dozen spoons of white silver. 

In the following century the relation between spoons and forks remains 
about the same. In the inventory of the Chateau de A^incennes (1418) three 
very handsome forks set with gems are recorded. In that of the Louvre ( 1420) 
six are entered, and even at the close of the 15th century they remain rare. 
The inventory of Charlotte of Savoie (1483) mentions but one. 

These facts, which show the consistent rarity of a utensil that was to 
become so common, would be enough in themselves to demonstrate the scant 
use made of the fork, even though the chroniclers, poets and "raconteurs" of 

(i) Dictionnaire de rAmeublement et de la Decoration. ( Quantin, Paris.) 



62 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

the period did not bear testimony to this conclusion. None of the old chroniclers 
or writers mention forks. The "Menagier de Paris," in which the most meticu- 
lously exact details are given on the housekeeping of ancient days, recommends 
in case of large dinners the placing of silver and plate under the surveillance 
of special officers whose duty will be to see that nothing is lost. "Two special 
equerries," it says, "will do for the handling of soiled things who will deliver 
the spoons and receive them back again." Nowhere are forks mentioned. 

Then Chastellain. in his account of the banquet offered by the Duke of 
Burgund)' to the English Ambassadors ( 1462 ) , says : "No fault could be found, 
for there were as many mouths to feed as there were fingers to the hands of 
the eaters." The Ambassadors obviously ate with their fingers. 

Moreover, a sentence of Olivier de la Marche ( Estat du Due, p. 684 ) shows 
that to carve, the equerry in charge took the meat with his fingers, which, by 
the way, explains the recommendation made by the Lady of the Belles Cousines 
to little Jehan de Saintre : "Hold your hands and your nails clean, for in all 
the offices of serving the Lord at table, yours most requires it." Later the first 
equerry carried in his armorial bearings as emblem of his office a knife and 
fork "en sautoir." 

Be all this negative evidence as it may. the special use of the forks men- 
tioned in the inventories is established in the documents that reveal their exist- 
ence. Already we have seen that in Charles A^'s inventory forks were said to 
be intended for "toasting the King's cheeze" : in that of Charlotte de Savoie 
the fork is described as "to eat burned almonds." Another document (1390) 
mentions a gold fork for the Duchess of Orleans to take her "souppe au vin." 
Still another, in the account of the dues de Bourgogne ( 1420), is specified to 
"eat blackberries," and the same use is ascribed to another in 1427. Prior to 
the 1 6th century no forks appear on the tables depicted in the illustrations, 
miniatures and others that have been preserved, and the constant use of the 
basin and ewer during this period and the i6th century points in the same 
direction. 

Eloquent in this respect is the "Galathee," a sort of treatise on "Civility" 
by Monseigneur della Casa, bishop of Beneventum, published in French in 
1598, in which he says : 

"It would seem that one should not wash his hands before people, those 
are things that one does in his room and not in company. Nevertheless, when 
one is about to sit at the table one must wash one"s hands in the presence of 
others, even though there may be no need for it. in order that those with whom 
one puts one's hands into the dish may have no doubt as to their cleanliness." 
Elsewhere the same writer adds : "A well bred man sees to it that his fingers 
are not greasy to such an extent as to soil the table cloth. To wipe one's fingers 
on the bread one is about to eat does not either seem well bred." Erasmus 
urged to take one's meat with three fingers as more "graceful." Other passages 
are quoted from Jamyn and Ronsard. Montaigne, however, while he distinctly 
says that he "could well dine without a cloth, but without a clean napkin, as 
do the Germans, most inconveniently," adds: "I soil them (fingers) more than 
they and the Italians do, and make little use of spoon or fork. I regret that 
tiie example of kings is not followed : that our napkins be changed with each 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 63 

course, as they do our plates." But, of course, this brings us to the end of the 
i6th century, when forks were about to come into regular usage, as is made 
clear in "LTsle des Hermaphrodites," pubHshed at the beginning of the 17th 
centur}-, from which it appears that under Henri III. of France forks were used 
at court in that countr}'. He describes a meal served to the king and his courtiers 
at which "the meats were so hashed, cut and disguised as to be unknown." Of 
course "they never touched the meats with their hands but with forks." Later 
he describes salad as eaten in the same way. At the same time he mentions 
some guests as awkward in their use of these implements, and as allowing 
"their mouthfuls to drop back into their plates and anywhere on the way to 
their mouths." The author of the story himself, however, distinctly states that 
he ate in the pantry and a scrimmage for food ensued, each taking all he could 
at first, for they might be sure never to put twice "their hands in the dish." 

As late as 1633 Gougenot in his "Comedie des Comediens" still mentions 
"putting the hand in the dish," and in 1673 says clearly that one should not 
pitt one's hand in the dish before those best qualified — "That one should take 
at once what one needs, as it is uncivil to put twice one's hand in the dish, and 
still worse to pick out piece after piece." 

The use of forks, according to Havard, came in with the "fraise" collar, 
which made it next to impossible to carry food to one's mouth otherwise, with- 
out disaster to one's toilette. Coincidently with the development of the "fraise" 
collars the number of forks increases in the inventories. That of Gabrielle 
d'Estree records twenty forks (1599). A superb fork of late i6th century, 
sold at the Hotel Drouot in 1884, brought 121,400 francs. The handle was 
beautifully chased and adorned with diamonds and rubies. 

Still, in 1609, the Princesse de Conti, in her escape from Paris, ate with 
her fingers and even with her gloves. On the other hand, Louis XIII. ( 1610- 
43) early contracted the habit of using a fork.^') But Anne of Austria, having 
been brought up in Spain, never could get accustomed to forks and used her 
fingers, and the grande Mademoiselle did likewise'^^^ Even as late as La 
Bruyere^^)^ Gnathon's table manners are indescribably described. But the fact 
that La Bruyere was so critical of his ways shows him to have been a survival 
of an older time in a more refined age. Nevertheless, St. Simon'-^^ shows that 
in order to establish the reign of the fork victoriously and definitely, no less 
an influence was needed than that of the Due de Montansier. He lived in 
splendor and "had invented large spoons and large forks which he made the 
fashion." And it is notable that the first pictures in which forks appear, date 
of his time. Before this date in the early years of the 17th century, however, 
the irregular use of forks may be followed through legal documents in which 
defective forks or the counterfeit of marks gave rise to litigation. But if the 
duke did not "invent" the fork, he was identified with its regular use, and 
Scarron wrote then in his travesty of Virgil ( i, p. 79) : 

(i) Journal de Jean Havard, 9 Mai, 1612. 

(2) (Memoires vol. IV. p. 112.) See also for the Chancelier Eeguier : Tallemant 
des Reaun III, p. 39. 

(3) Caracteres ch. XI. 

(4) Note on Journal de Dangeau, p. 127. 



64 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

II etait si propre, dit-on, 
Qu'il n'eut pas pour un ducaton — 
(Grand signe d'attention nette) — 
Voiilu rien manger sans fourchette. 

In the i/th century the great of the land, at least, were well accustomed 
to the use of the fork. In those days when the dread of poison haunted the 
minds of all men of importance, the dishes were always brought on covered, 
and the spoon, knife and fork of the sovereign were enclosed in the "nef 
(hence the word "cover") used for the three implements. Everything, how- 
ever, before being used by host or guest, was subjected to a curious test. Not 
only did the appointed servants test the viands, but they did also the imple- 
ments, or they simpl)^ touched them with the talismans they regarded as infal- 
lible preservers, such as the tongue of a snake, the horn of the narval, the 
stone called "crapaudine" and believed to come in the head of a toad, etc. The 
gentleman in charge of the "nef" and of the implements therein contained 
touched each of these, as well as the plate, toothpicks, etc., with a piece of 
bread that one of the table officers at once swallowed, when the king proceeded 
with his meal. 

At the close of the 17th century treatises on manners mention the fork 
(see "Traite de la civilite qui se pratique en France parmi les honnetes gens," 
1673, which not only prescribes the use of a fork, but forbids its use after a 
meal as a toothpick). At the close of the 17th century the inventory of the 
furniture of the Crown (22 April, 1697) mentions 445 forks, of which 113 were 
in silver gilt and the balance of silver. Other private inventories are that of the 
Abbe d'Fffiat (1698), which mentions seventeen forks, and that of Alarquis 
de Montpipeau (1692), twelve forks and twelve spoons. A number of inven- 
tories of goods of more humble persons mention from six to twelve, the last 
number becoming fixed in the i8th century. At this time they seem to have 
often been with three prongs, although the fact of this being specificallv men- 
tioned shows that the two-pronged fork was the usual form. Wooden forks 
were still used in the 18th century. Oyster forks appear in the iSth century 
(1786), but were not obligatory in France in the 19th century. 

The general condition of table manners and customs prevailing at the 
courts of P'rance and England as late as the reign of Henry I\' (1589-1610), 
therefore, makes it unlikely that in the mountains of the Tyrol forks should 
have been in use at this time among the peasants. It is my belief that most of 
the specimens in the present series belong to the i8th and earlv 19th centuries. 

S. Y. S. 




BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 
A MEISSEN PORCELAIN GROUP 



65 



In the collection of porcelain recently presented to the Museum by Mr. 
C. Hartman Kuhn is a large figure group consisting of a man dressed as a 
knight bestriding a goat and surrounded by the implements of a tailor. On 
the horns of the animal are hung a pair of shears and a smoothing iron, or 
"goose." On his rump he carries a pin-cushion. A measuring rule at the 
man's side takes the place of a sword, while other tools of the trade serve 








THE BRUEHL TAILOR 

Hard Paste Porcelain Group 

Meissen, Germany, Eighteenth Century 

as holsters and pistols. The design was originally modeled by the celebrated 
artist, Johann Joachim Kaendler, who became attached to the Meissen factory 
in 1 73 1. This model is known as "The Bruehl Tailor." It was one of 
many designs originated by Kaendler during the third period of the 
Meissen factory, which extended from 1735 to 1756. In 1733, Count 
Heinrich von Bruehl became supervisor of the works, and in 1737 the 
"Bruehl Tailor" appeared. 



k 



66 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



THE SPECIAL MUSEUM FUND 




WOODEN WALL CLOCK 
Carved, Painted and Gilded 
Late Seventeenth Century 



For some years past it has been 
customary to raise among the friends of 
the Museum an annual fund for the pur- 
chase of objects of art. While the amounts 
thus collected have never exceeded modest 
proportions, they have, nevertheless, enabled 
the Committee to secure many desirable 
things which have been offered from time 
to time, and which would not otherwise 
have been obtainable. Through this fund 
it has been possible to take advantasre of 
the opportunities offered by public and 
private sales to fill in many gaps in the 
collections. Objects are being constantly 
offered to the ^luseum which are needed 
to round out certain groups of exhibits, for 
which no other fund is available. During 
the past year or so, man}' rarities have been 
acquired by this means, among which may 
be mentioned the following : 

A carved, painted and gilded wooden 
wall clock of the seventeenth century, 
Holland, from the Howard Pyle sale. 

An embroidered cut velvet coat of the 
period of Louis XAT., French, from the 
same source. 

A collection of Tyrolese peasants' snulif 
boxes, late eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries. 

A remarkable collection of knives, 
forks and spoons of the eighteenth and 
early nineteenth centuries, used by the 
I peasants of the Austrian Tyrol and 
described elsewhere in this number of the 
Bulletin. 

Examples of decorated iron work 
( stove plates) of the eighteenth century, 
from the early iron furnaces of Eastern 
Pennsylvania. 

Group of old Swiss enameled glass of 
the eighteenth century. 

Large carved cinnabar lacquer vase, 
Chinese, eighteenth centurv. 

Silver cream jug made by J. Bayly, 
Philadel]3hia. about 178.^ 

The fund for 1913-1914 is now being 
raised, and contributions will be thank- 
fully received. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



67 



ITALIAN PORCELAIN AND POTTERY 



The ceramic literature of Italy (other than 
exceedingly meagre, and little is known of the h 
factories of that country. In consequence of this 
wares, with the exception of stanniferous faience 
represented in American collections. 

As has already been stated in the Bulletin, 
a dozen examples of Capo di Monte hard paste, 



that relating to maiolica) is 

istory of the early porcelain 

dearth of knowledge, Italian 

{ maiolica ) are inadequately 

this Museum possesses half 
with colored reliefs, of the 




CUPS AND SAUCER 

Artificial Soft Paste. By Del Vecchio, Naples 

Eighteenth Century 



second period (1760-1800). We know of no other genuine examples in any 
of the public or private collections in this country. Of the first period of the 
Capo di Monte factory (1736-1759), under the patronage of Charles III., the 
Museum owns two examples of soft paste, a cup and saucer painted with purple 
bands containing pale yellow medallions in which are black silhouette figures 
of women and satyrs in miniature. A few scattering pieces of the soft paste 
are to be seen in other American collections. 

In the group of porcelain recently presented by Mr. C. Hartman Kuhn 
are two fine specimens of hard paste, a pitcher and basin, bearing the mark of 
the Naples factory. They are beautifully painted and bear the signature of the 
decorator, Francesco Ladolfi. We can find no mention of Ladolfi in any of the 
ceramic books ; but, if we may judge of his ability by this example of his work, 
he must have been an accomplished artist, as we have met with no more preten- 
tious painting on Italian porcelain. 



68 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 




CAPO Dl MONTE CUP AND SAUCER 
Artificial Soft Paste, previous to 1759 




NAPLES EWER AND BOWL 

Dated 1813 

Painted by Francesco Ladolfi 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



69 



The painting, in flat colors, represents a boar hunt, in which the greens and 
browns predominate. The view on the bowl is much worn by long use. The 
broad borderings of both pieces are elaborately penciled in different shades of 
burnished and dull gold, with bird medallions inserted at intervals. Both are 
marked on the bottom in red over the glaze with a crown surmounting the 
letter N and the date 1813, evi- 
dently the year of fabrication. 
On the bowl is, in addition, the 
usual soft paste Capo di Monte 
mark, the initial N under a 
crown, in underglaze blue. It 
was not customary to mark the 
hard paste having colored reliefs, 
although the earlier soft paste 
painted porcelain was usually so 
distinguished. It is interesting to 
find an example of the later hard 
paste which bears the mark of 
the factory, but this seems to be 
the exception which proves what 
appears to have been the rule, that 
only the forgeries of the hard 
paste reliefs were marked with 
the crown and N. In this in- 
stance the hard paste is painted 
in the same manner as the soft 
paste of the first period, and the 
same mark has been used. These 
examples are of special interest 
to collectors as showing a partial 
revival of the earliest method of 
decoration in the last years of the 
Capo di Monte factory, which was 
closed about 1820, when many of 
the old moulds were secured by 
the Ginori works at Doccia. 

In 1785 Gennaro and Nicola 
Del Vecchio established a factory 
at Naples for the production of 
yellow ware, in imitation of the English cream ware, when King Ferdinand IV. 
made an appropriation of 18,000 ducats for the purpose. The decorations were 
in the Etruscan style, portrait heads and grotesque figures, usually painted in 
brown camaieu. The ware consisted of a dry, white, opaque body covered with 
a transparent lead glaze. In the Museum collections are several examples, two 
cans, or mug-shaped cups, with square handles, and classical heads painted in 
dark brown, and a saucer with figures of a man and satyr in a lighter brown 
on a pale blue ground and a border in dark red. The works passed into the 




CHOCOLATE POT 

Haid Paste Porcelain 

Doccia. Eighteenth Century 



70 BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 

hands of Cherinto Del \'ecchio at a later date, and were closed about 1855, when 
operated by Gennaro, a son of Cherinto. 

Among other Italian porcelain factories of the i8th century were those of 
Florence, Nove, A^enice and Doccia. Examples of soft paste from the latter 
two may be seen in the Museum collections, and in addition to these a fine 
piece of Doccia hard paste ( 1770-1800), in the shape of a chocolate pot, deco- 
rated on both sides with paintings of boys at play, in flat colors, in which a 
dark pink or rose predominates. The graceful form of the pot and the greenish 
tint of the glaze strongly reveal the influence of the Capo di Monte factory. 

E. A. B. 



NOTES 

Obituary — It is with deep sorrow we have to announce the death of Aliss 
Anna Blanchard, which occurred on August 2, 1913. Miss Blanchard was 
greatly interested in the work of the Museum and School and was a member 
of the Museum Committee for eighteen years. She was one of the most 
liberal contributors to the Museum and she was always ready to assist in 
making up funds for special purposes. 

Cover Design — The cover design for this number is the work of Aliss 
A'era L. G. Stevens, and was awarded the Ketterlinus first prize. 

Installation — The collections of playing cards, postage stamps. Civil 
War envelopes and book plates have been entirely rearranged during the sum- 
mer and are exhibited in one of the rooms on the north side of the building. 

Sarcophagus — A carved stone sarcophagus of the third century, which 
was brought from Syria by Commodore Jesse Duncan Elliott in 1839 and pre- 
sented to Girard College, has been deposited in Memorial Hall by the Board of 
City Trusts. This will be described in the next number of the Bulletin. 

School Notes — The day sessions of the Art School opened for the season 
of 1913-1914 Monday, September 29th, the evening classes October 6th, the 
Saturday classes October nth. 

The inquiries and applications for admission have been many. The re- 
quests for accommodations at the League House, which has been so success- 
fully developed by Miss Lea and her committee, have been far more numerous 
than ever before, again pointing to the need of larger provision for the young 
women students. 

But few changes have been made in the schedules. The morning costumed 
model class will be under Mr. Deigendesch, and the Saturday afternoon work 
of the same subject under Mr. Copeland. The resignation of Mr. Spear will 
require a rearrangement of his subjects, not yet fully consummated. The class- 
rooms and halls have been repainted during the summer and are bright and 
attractive. 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



71 



The library of the AUimni Association, the nucleus of which was given by 
Mr. John Sellers Bancroft, to permit the circulation of art books among the 
students, has just been enriched by a gift of twenty-four volumes of illustrated 
"Lives" of the old masters. 

The work in salt-glazed stoneware of the pottery class last season is 
described and illustrated in an article in The Craftsman for September, and 
the decorative use of mosaic in the cement garden vases, seats, etc., will be 
reviewed in the same magazine in the October issue. These are two of the 
simple processes of making common thnigs and materials beautiful which have 
been employed by the School of late. 



ACCESSIONS 
July — September, 19 13 



CLASS 



Arms', and 

Armor 
Ceramics 



Carvings 
Furniture 



Glass 



Metal work 



Musical In- 
struments 



Silver 



Textiles 
\'ehicles 



Miscella- 
neous 



OBJECT 



HOW ACQUIRED 



Suit of Japanese Armor Lent by Mrs. Richard W. Meirs. 



2 Pieces of Pottery 

Creamware Cider Pitcher and Platter, Stafford- 
shire, England, c. 1825 

37 Pieces of Porcelain, English, French, German, 

Dutch and Russian 

20 Chessmen and Chessboard 

4 Wooden Spoons. Norwegian 

Window Sash with Original Glass, Pennsylvania, 

c. 1750 

Wooden Cupboard with Painted Decoration, The 

Tyrol, Austria . 

Prayer Chair, The Tyrol, Austria, early 19th 

Century 

Oak Table, Pennsylvania-German, i8th Century. 

4 Champagne Glasses, Austrian 

2 Paintings on Glass, Pennsylvania-German, Old. 
4 Pieces of Stiegel Glass, Pennsylvania-German, 

1763-1774 

2 Iron Stove Plates, Pennsylvania-German, eajly 

19th Century 

2 Betty I^mps, American, Mid-igth Century. . . 

Wrought Iron Clock 

Drum, American, late i8th Century 

Zither, Pennsylvania-German 

Cittern, English, early 19th Century 

Silver Tablespoon, probably by John Germon, 

Philadelphia, 1788-1814 

Silver Coffee Pot and Bowl, made by Jarden & 

Bro., American, early r9th Century 

Silver Sugar Bowl, made by R. & W. Wilson, 

Philadelphia, c. 1831 

Silver Creamer, made by Samuel Williamson, 

Philadelphia, c. 1796 

Pair of Cloth Riding Breeches 

Old Coach, American 

Set of Donkey Harness, Sicilian 

Old Pin-Pricked Picture, Pennsylvania-German . . 
4 Old Baskets, American 



Lent by Dr. Edwin A. Barber. 

Given by Miss Mary A. Dobbins. 

Given by Rev. Alfred Duane Pell. 
Lent by Mr. James F. Magee, Jr. 
Lent by Mrs. Samuel Spackman. 

Given by Mr. D. H. Landis. 

Given by Mrs. James Mifti'in. 

By Purchase. 

Given by Rev. Alfred Duane Pell. 

By Purchase. 

Lent by Dr. Edwin A. Barber. 

■ By Purchase. 

Lent by Mrs. Richard W. Meirs. 

- By Purchase. 

By Purchase. 

- Bequest of Mr. Edgar L. Thomson. 



Given by Mrs. A. W. Wright. 

Lent by Mr. Robert L. Brownfield, Jr. 

Lent by Mrs. Richard W. Meirs. 

By Purchase. 



72 



BULLETIN OF THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM 



MEMBERSHIP 

The Trustees of the Pennsylvania 
Museum and School of Industrial Art 
desire the active co-operation of all pub- 
lic-spirited citizens who are known to be 
in sympathy with its educational work. 
All such persons are invited to become 
members. 

CLASSIFICATION OF MEMBERS 

Patrons — Those who contribute the 
sum of $5000 or more whether in money 
or objects for the Museum. 

Fellowship Members — Those who con- 
tribute $1000 at one time. 

Life Members — Those who contribute 
the sum of $100 or more at one time. 

Annual Members — Those who contri- 
bute not less tlian $10 yearly. 

The contributions received from Pa- 
trons ($5000). and from Life Members 
($100), are added to the permanent En- 
dowment Fund. Contributions from An- 
nual Members ($10) are used to the best 
advantage in the development of the 
Museum and the School. 

ADVANTAGES OF MEMBERSHIP 

All members are entitled to the fol- 
lowing benefits: 

The right to vote and transact busi- 
ness at the Annual Meeting. 

Invitations to all general receptions 
and exhibitions held at the Museum and 
the School. 

Free access to the Museum and School 
Libraries and admission to all lectures. 

Also a copy of each of the following 
publications: 

The Annual Report of the Corpora- 
tion. 

The Annual Circulars of the School 
of Applied Art and the Philadelphia 
Textile School. 

The Art Handbooks and Art Primers, 
issued from time to time by the Museum 
(a printed list of publications will be 
mailed to any member on application). 

The Illustrated Quarterlj- Bulletin of 
the Museum. 

A list of members is published each 
year in the Annual Report. 

Applications for membership, and re- 
mittances should be sent to The Secre- 
tary, P. i\l. & S. I. A.. Memorial Hall, 
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pa. 

HOURS OF ADMISSION 

The Aluseum is open, free to the pub- 
lic, every day in the year. 
Opening Hours: 

^londavs at 12 i\I. 
Other Week Days at 9:30 A.M. 
Sundays at i P. M. 
Closing Hours: 

During the summer months, 5 P. M. 
(Sundays, 6 P. M.) 
During the winter months, a half 
hour before sunset. 



CATALOGUES, HANDBOOKS, ETC. 
(On sale at the South Entrance) 

Handbook of the Museum $ .25 

A Brief History of the Bayeux Tap- 
estry 10 

Cork Models of Windsor Castle, 
Tower of London, Westminster 
Abbey, Church of St. Peter, Rome .10 

The Great Seals of England 25 

Handbook of the Collection of Tulip 
Ware of the Pennsylvania-German 
Potters: 

Paper cover I.oo 

Large paper edition. Cloth .... 5.00 
Handbook of the Maiolica of Mexico : 

Paper cover i.oo 

Fle.xible .A.rt Canvas 2.00 

Art Primer No. 3, Lead Glazed Pot- 
tery 50 

Art Primer No. 5, Tin Enameled 
Pottery 50 

Art Primer No. 6, Salt Glazed Stone- 
ware 50 

Art Primer No. g. Hard Paste Porce- 
lain so 

Art Primer No. ri. Artificial Soft 
Paste Porcelain 50 

Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Mu- 
seum (quarterl}0> pei' annum i.oo 



Friends of the Institution who desire 
to devise to it money should use the fol- 
lowing: 

Form of Bequest 

I give and bequeath unto the Penn- 
sylvania Museum and School of Indus- 
trial Art the sum of 

dollars for the use of the said Corpora- 
tion. 

Witnesses, 



Form of Devise of Real Estate 

I give and devise unto the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum and School of Industrial 
Art, its successors and assigns, all that 
certain (here insert a description of the 
property) for the use of the said Cor- 
poration. 



Witnesses, 



I 



P E N N S Y LVA NIA MUSEUM 

AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART 



MUSEUM COMMITTCe 



John Story Jenks, Chainitan 
Thomas Skelion Harkison 
John H. McFadoen 
John D. McIluenny 
John T. Morris 
John W. Pepper 



Edgar V. Seeleb 
Edward T. Stotesbuby 
Mrs. W. T. Carter 
Mrs. W. D. Frisiimuth 
Miss Fannie S. Magee 
Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 



Mrs. John Harrison, Ex OfRcio 
Edwin AtLee Barber, Director' of the Museum 
Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, Assistant Curator and Lecturer 

HONORARY CURATORS 

Textiles, Lace and Embroider>' Mrs. John Harrison 

Oriental Pottery Mrs. Jones VVister 

European Porcelain Rev. Alfred Duane Pell 

Arms and Armor Cornelius Stevenson 

Furniture and Woodwork Gustav Ketterer 

Musical Instruments Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 

Prints, r.ook Plates and Historic Seals Charles E. Dana 

'^ umismatics F. D. Lancenheim 

ulpture. Marbles and Casts Alexander Stirling Caliies 



INSTRUCTION COMMITTtC 



Theodore C. Search, Chairman 
Charles Bond 
Charles E. Dana 
Charles H. Harding 
Thomas Skelton Harbison 
John Story Jenks 
John D. McIlhenny 
Edgar V. Seeler 
G. Henry Stetson 

Mrs. John 



Jones Wister 
William Wood 
Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison 
Mrs. F. K. Hipple 
Mrs. Thomas Roberts 
Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 
Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 
Mrs. John Wister 
Mrs. Jones Wister 
Harrison, Ex Officio 



ASSOCIATE COMMITTEE OF WOMEN TO THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



PflCStDtNT 

Mis. John Harrison 

SCCRCTARV 

Miss M. S. Hinchman 



VICC-PRCSIOCNT 

Mrs. Thomas Rorehts 

TRrASURCn 

Mrs. Joseph F. Sinnott 



Mrs. Edwin Swift Balch 
Mrs. RuLOLPii Blankendurc 
Miss Louise W. Bodine 
Mrs. Jasper Yeates Brinton 
Mrs. John H. Brinton 
Mrs. William T. Carter 
Miss Margaret Clyde 
Miss Margaret L. Corlies 
Miss Ada M. Crozer 
Mrs. David E. Dallam 



Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison 
CouNTrss Santa Eulalia 
Miss Cornelia L. Ewing 
Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth 
Mrs. W. W. Gibes 
Mrs. C. Leland Harrison 
Mrs. F. K. Hipple 
Mrs. J. L. Ketterlinus 
Miss Nina Lea 
Miss Fannie S. Magef. 



Mrs. Arthur V. Meigs 
Mrs. James Mifflin 
Mrs. Francis F. Milnb 
Mrs. John W. Pepper 
Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 
Mrs. C. Shillard Smith 
Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson 
Mrs. John Wister 
Mrs. Jones Wister 



honorary member 
Mrs. M. Hampton Tooo